The Manor of Abney: its Boundaries and Court Rolls

By C. E. B. BOWLES, M.A.

This article was published originally in the Derbyshire Archaeological Society Journal, vol. 29, 1907; pp129-140.

Transcribed by Rosemary Lockie, © 2000

THE Manor of Abney consists of two separate hamlets - Abney and Abney Grange - which are about a mile apart. Together they form one township in the Union of Bakewell, containing about 1,400 acres.

The existence of the Poor-house - necessary to each township before the “Union” system was in force - and at least one inmate is within the recollection of the oldest inhabitant.
[Ed: whilst one can understand what this paragraph means, the grammar is awry!!! It is reproduced “as-is”]

Prior to the year 1875, when, much against its will, this township was included in the new ecclesiastical parish of Bradwell, it formed part of the large and widely-straggling parish of Hope.

In the Domesday Book, Abney is included among the numerous manors bestowed by the Conqueror on William Peverel; and is thus described: “In Habenai, Swain had one carucate of land to be taxed land to one plough. It is waste.”[1]

Presumedly it passed out of the possession of the Peverel family, together with the rest of their vast estates, in 1155, when William, the third of his name, was banished in consequence of the murder of Ranulph, Earl of Chester, of which crime he was accused. During the next four centuries the history of the manor is not very clear. About half a century after it passed out of the possession of William Peverel it appears to have formed part of the possessions of one Gilbert de Stoke, for among the earliest of the Rufford charters (fol. 129) is one which is dated 2 John (1200), and, as quoted by Mr. Pym Yeatman in his section viii., p. 402, is as follows:- “Gerebertus: de Stoca gave half of Abbeneia to the Abbey of Rufford.” Another charter, from the same source, is quoted, in section v., p. 189, to this effect:- “Galfrey Pavelli had license of concord with Eustace de Mortain. Robert Pavelli attested a charter of Amicia, Lady of Stoke, to Rufford, concerning half the manor of Abney - dated 3. John.” - (Rufford Charters, 234.)

Whether this is the same moiety granted by Gilbert, or whether it alluded to the other half of the manor, does not appear.

To this day there is almost conclusive evidence that a portion at least of Abney was held by the Abbey in the word “Grange” attached to the smaller of the two hamlets. A grange, although it signified a repository for grain, was, in feudal times, the term specially applied to an outlying farm-house, with barns, belonging to a religious establishment, or a feudal lord, where crops and tithes in kind were stored; the land attached to the house and buildings being farmed in the interests of the Abbey.

Whether Amicia, Lady of Stoke, owned the manor of Abney in her own right, or in that of her husband, Gilbert, is not clear. Nor is it clear as to the date or manner in which this estate passed into their hands. Mr. Pym Yeatman more than suggests that this Amicia was a member of the Albini family, and obtained the manor of Abney through her father, and sees in this fact another proof that Albini and, Abney were one and the same word, and one and the same family.

According to his pedigree of the Albinis,[2] Amicia, daughter of Henry Albini, Lord of Cainhoe (vita 1107), married Mathew, son of Walthieu de Ponington, and by him, “who gave the whole of Albenya to Rufford”, had one daughter and sole heir, Amicia, who married Lancelin de Stokes, son of Lancelin, of whom, in 12 Henry III. (1227), are proved by a fine of that date to have been in possession of the “Manor of Abney”.

From another Rufford charter (fol. 127) we obtain the knowledge that Richard de Grey made a grant to the Abbey of “half of the manor of Abney, which he had of the grant of Lancelin de Stokes and Amicia, his wife, and the ancestors of the said Amicia.”

In 1473, the Abbot and Convent of the Virgin Mary at Rufford leased the grange of Abney to Ralph Eyre, of Offerton, for 86 years.[3]

From these evidences, there seems little doubt that a moiety of the manor of Abney - evidently that portion which bears the name of Grange - was either held under the lord or actually owned by the Abbey of Rufford.[4] The former supposition, as will be seen by succeeding events, is probably the correct one, for quoted hereafter is the proof[5] that the whole of the manor was owned, in the year 1317, by Robert Archer, a member of a family who were lords at this time of at least three other manors - Hucklow, Stoke, and Highlow. It is not improbable that all were owned by the same member of the Archer family, and that the manor of Abney having been settled now on one the sons, it was found necessary - possibly for the first time - clearly to delineate the exact boundaries. Mr. Pym Yeatman[6] says that: “There is an inquisition post-mortem of Ralph le Archer, of Great Hucklow, 32 Edward I. (1303), when he was found seized of a messuage and land in Great Hucklow, held by the service of keeping the King's forest of High Peak with a bow and arrows.” Ralph, his, son, died 12 Edward III. (1338), and was succeeded by his son and heir, Thomas le Archer, aged 26 years. “The Archers”, he says, “acted as if they were members of the Albini family called by another name.”

This is, of course, quite possible, and might account for their possession of Abney - if Abney and Albini be indeed the same name.

[p. 132]
The following manuscript[7] is in the writing of about the sixteenth century, and is probably what it purports to be, namely, a copy of the original partition deed.

A trewe and perefect Copy of a Deed Concerning ye Mannor of Abney as followeth

Saturday in ye morning after St Michael ye Archangle in ye 12th. yeare of ye raign of King Edward ye second ye King of England in the year of our Lord 1317, it is thus covenanted and agreed upon between Robert Archer ye Lord of Abney of ye one partie and Thomas Archer ye Lord of High Lowe of ye other partie yt is to say yt ye Signeing Moore from ye Baxton delf gate to ye Chapman feild to ye Stoak ford and so up along Abney brooke to a hole or pit near Abney Lidgate Assett or assett shall be and remain in free common of pasture to the aforesd. Thomas and Robert and their heirs and their tenants for ever.

Saveing ye woods of both parties by ye ancient mears[8] or marks to be cropped and cutt down at ye owners will and pleasure within ye said marks or bounds also it is agreed yt ye dunge to ye Nick Lee shall be comon of pasture as is aforesaid concerning Signeing Moore or Moss. In witness whereof ye parties enterchangeably have put their hands and seales,

These being witness

 Philip of Streadaylee (?)
 John Archer
 Richard of Padley
 John of Bradwall
 Richard of Moston
 Will. Hawley
 Will of Abney, &c.

Dated at Abney as aforesaid.

The two following manuscripts, in the writer's possession, set out more minutely the boundaries of the whole manor of Abney. The first, as will be observed, bears the same date as the one just quoted, viz., 1317. The other, dated 1726, is so nearly identical in wording, that it seems sufficient only to notify in the first the points in which it differs from the later one. These differences will be found, in the footnotes. It is an interesting fact that all the places here mentioned are known by the same names to-day, except Clusterberry Low, which name seems to be lost. It is described in another MS. as being at Bagshaw Edge, “above the sitch going to Arnott Well.” Further down the stream, on the eastwardly side, near the Silver Well, was a piece of land - some 74 acres - which, in 1803, was found to have been for many years a bone of contention between Abney and Hucklow. A wall had been built by the Great Hucklow people, which was pulled down by Mr. Bradshawe, and never rebuilt; but the dispute remained. It came to a climax when the Enclosures Act of Parliament brought the notice of the public eye upon the debatable ground - when the case was taken to the assizes in the spring of 1804; with the result that an equal division of the land in dispute was made between the two townships.

“A coppy of ye Boundaries of Abney Lordshipp 12 Edward II.”

It begins at ye Stoke forth[9] and so goes up Routing Wall sich and so to ye Slack att the Highlow Head[10] and so straight over ye Moore to a round hill or Knowle called Berching Hatt[11] and so through ye way to ye Dunge Clough Head and following ye Brooke[12] to Burton Boole[13] and from Burton Boole following ye gate to ye Woolfe pit down along Saundorson Sich and so to the Clough Head above Ufferton[14] and from the Clough Head above Ufferton straight following the Sich to Robin Crosse from Robin Crosse to the height of Blacklowe as the water falleth from ye Blacklow[15] so to Clusterberry[16] Low. and then to ye stone yt lies on ye South side of Clusterberry Low and then straight to ye Archer stone lying ye south side (of) Rivenage from Abney and then follow down ye Slack unto Arminett Well and so to ye Sylver Well and so follow ye water to Stark home following ye water down ye bottom of Bretton Clough and so to Musford green and to Odstor[17] and so following ye water to Stoke forth and so wee end where wee began.

On the 30th of Sept., 1736, “the Boundaries were beaten.” in the presence of Mr. Thomas Tilney, the Steward of the Estate.

The wording, except in a few unimportant particulars, which have been noted, is identical with that of 12 Edward II. It is signed by those who were present, as follows:

Wm. Bagshawaged66Thos. Dakinaged-
Nicholas Barber"70Joshua Francis"-
Robt. Drable"68George Eyre"41
John How"51Francis Eyre"-
Robert Barker"41Robert Barker"45
Francis Townsend"36George Bamforth"76
Thos. Townsley"28John Bagshaw"35
Robt. Townsley"24Anthony Mosley"32
Robt. Hall"24Robert Middleton"63
Thos. Bocking"27Martin Middleton"34
John Holm"-Francis Barker"33
Wm. Bradwell"55Robt. Barker"-
Thos. Barker"49Francis Townsend"66
Robt. Radford"40Robt. Middleton, Jun.  
Robt. Robinson"46Robt. Oldfield  
George Robinson"49Wm. Oldfield  
Francis Robinson"47   

In the four centuries which lie between these two “Beatings of the Boundaries”, the manor of Abney had changed hands at least twice. At what date it passed out of the possession of the Archers, as well as the manner in which it did so, is still a mystery. From an Inq. P.M. of Robt. Eyre, of Padley, who died 14 Nov., 19 Henry VII, (1504), we know that Nicholas Bagshawe was then lord of this manor. Although the exact date and manner of its acquisition is unknown,[18] members of this family were landowners and resident at Abney as early as 1329, at which date the name of Robert Bagshawe, of Abney, appears in an inquisition. At the end of the sixteenth century the whole manor was sold by Nicholas Bagshawe, of Farewell, co. Stafford - the great grandson of Nicholas, first in the visitation of Staffordshire - to Godfrey Bradshawe and Francis Bradshawe, the eldest and third sons of Godfrey Bradshawe, of Bradshawe.

The elder of the two brothers, Francis, had married, nearly thirty years before, when not ten years of age, one of the daughters and co-heirs of Humphry Stafford, of Eyam, and had, with his wife, acquired large estates at Eyam and Bretton.[19] The manor of Abney marched with these estates, hence, probably, the cause of this new purchase. In 1610 his brother's share of Abney was acquired. The conveyance of the manor of Abney is dated 26th October, 35 Elizabeth (1593), and is from Nicholas Bagshawe, of Farewell, co. Stafford, gentleman, to Godfrey Bradshawe, of London, and Francis Bradshawe, of Eyam, gentlemen, in consideration of £1,000 to be paid by them. This deed includes all the lands within the manor which were purchased by the said Nicholas of Godfrey Foljambe, deceased; but not all the lands passed on this occasion with the manor, as several messuages and lands were acquired at later dates. The manuscript citing the boundaries in 1736 was written the year after George, the last of the Bradshawes, had died, when Ellen, his widow, was lady of the manor. At her death the estate passed to her husband's nephew - the son of his only surviving sister - Pierce Galliard, of Bury Hall, co. Middlesex. At his death, in 1789, the manor was inherited by his daughter Mary, who had married, in 1774, Charles Bowles, of Sheen House, co. Surrey, second son of Humphry Bowles, of Burford, co. Salop, and Wanstead, co. Essex. He died during his year of office as High Sheriff for co. of Surrey, 1795, and was succeeded by his son, Humphry Bowles, who, dying 1859, left the estate of Abney to his eldest son, Charles Bradshaw Bowles, the father of the present lord of the manor.

There is no evidence that the Great Court Baron of Abney was ever held since its purchase in 1593, except on four occasions, The results of these Courts Baron are written on one skin, which is in the possession of the writer of this article, and appear sufficiently interesting to be published.

I. - The first was held by Francis Bradshawe, of Bradshaw, grandson of the original purchaser of the manor. He was the eldest son of George Bradshawe,[20] who had succeeded his brother Francis, the High Sheriff, in 1635. He was born in 1630, and had married, in 1652, Elizabeth, elder daughter and co-heir of John Vesey, of Brampton, co. York. With his wife came to him the estates and ancient mansion house of the Veseys, and there he had taken up his abode. He held this, his first Court Baron, two years after his marriage, namely, October, 1654. His eldest son, and eventual successor, was born in the April of that same year.

Abney. The great Court Baron of Francis Bradshawe, Esqr. Lord of the said Manor holden for the said Manor the 20th day of October 1654 before Henry Kniveton Gentleman, Steward there.

Names of jurors.
Thomas Bocking Wm. Bradwall 
Wm. Middleton George Troute 
Robert Daykane Wm. Redferne 
Edward PadleySwornFrancis EyreSworn
Wm. Worrall Geo. Hallom 
Francis Marshall Wm. Fox 
Roger Bagshawe Thos. Bagshaw 

Which said jurors being sworn and charged upon their oathes say and present that John Greaves Thos Eyre Robert Hall the heirs of Wm. Bagshaw Thomas Bagshaw Robt Dolphine & Thos Drable owe suits and service to this Court, and have not appeared to do the same but made default therefore everyone of them is in the mercy of the Lord as doth appear over their head.[21] Paines laid there.

First we lay a pain that the orders hereafter menconed for ye eateing of the towne field of Abney shall be duely observed untill the next Court to be holden for theis Manor Otherwise every the partyes offending against the same shall forfeit to the Lord of the Manor for every offence 12d.

Which said Orders are as followeth viz. First that itt shall & may be lawfull for any. two or more of the best inhabitants of the towne aforesaid upon the Twentyeth day of March every yeare to drive the said townefield and to give warneing to the rest of the inhabitants to keep forth their Cattell till after harvest & that none of the said Inhabitants shall keepe or tether their horses or beasts in the said towne field in harvest tyme unlesse itt be when his hay or corne is drie & then to tye his horse to the Cart till he hath put his hay together; that ye next day after ye corne is shorne & last load lead out of the Townefield aforesaid that the inhabitants aforesaid shall putt in for every acre of land a beast untill Martlemas Day then next followeing and then to put in till St Andrewe's Day for every acre Twenty sheep & noe more & this their stint for their beasts viz: a horse or mare for two beasts, five sheep for one beast & seaven lambs for one beast and also for other Cattell every head to be for one beast & also if any of the said Inhabitants or their servants take the cattle trespasseing contrary to these orders to drive them to the Common pound, & there detaine them untill the party owneing ye cattle trespassing shall pay to ye party that impounded them, for every beast iiijd unlesse itt be him that doth wilfully put in his cattle contrary to ye order aforesaid & then he shall pay for every beast xijd Also we lay a pain that every person shall make his ring fences & gates standing in them in good repair before the Twentyeth of March next else forfeite for every offence ... ... ... ... ... ... iijs iiijd

Alsoe we laye a pain that noe person not inhabiting within theis manor shall burne digge or carry away any of the Lords soyle in pain to forfeit for every offence ... ... ... ... ... iijs iiijd

Also we lay a pain that noe persons shall oppresse the Commons belonging to this Manor in Sumer with more cattle than he can keep in Winter hogge sheep only excepted on pain to forfeit for every xxtie sheep ... ... ... ... ... x sh

Also we lay a pain that noe person shall turne any running waters out of their ancient courses within theis manor in pain to forfeit, for every tyme ... ... xijd

Also we lay a pain that noe person shall grynd any of his corne groweing within this manor[22] from the Lords milne on paine to forfeit for every tyme soe offending ... ... ... ... ... iiis iiijd

II. - Francis Bradshaw died five years after the above Court was held, and was succeeded by his son Francis, who was then in his sixth year. In 1664 his mother held the Court for him; he being at that time little more than ten years old.

It is written in Latin, of which the following is a translation:

The Great Court Barron of Francis Bradshawe Armiger infant per Elizabeth Bradshawe[23] junior widow his guardian Lord of the said manner held there for that manner the twenty fifth-day of October in the 16th year of the reign of our Lord Charles the Second now King of England and in the year of our Lord 1664 in the presence of Henry Kniveton gentleman Steward there

Thomas Bocking John Hoe 
William Furnes Richard Mortaine 
William Worrall Elizeus Marshall 
William GreavesjurorsRobert Barberjurors
William Bradwall Richard Docking 
Thomas Hall Thomas Drabel 
Robert Dolphin   

Imprimis the said jurors declare on oath and present that Rowland Eyre of Hassop armiger Thomas Bocking Henry Francis William Midleton Thomas Bagshaw Robert Dolphine Ralph Townesend Robert Dakeyne John White Thomas Mortain Robert Barber ... Robinson widow & Richard Robinson owe their suits to the said Court & have not appeared but have made default therefore every one of them is in the mercy of the Lord ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ijd

The jury present that Francis Eyre fed his sheep with others outside the manner in winter & in the summer fed them on the Common of the said manner in defiance of the penalty lately imposed in that case Therefore he is in the mercy of the Lord ... ... ... ... iijs iiijd

They present that Richard Redfern did it by advice (consile) Therefore he is in the mercy of the Lord of the said manner ... vid

They present that the Inhabitants in the Manner did not make in August a pair of Stocks the second penalty lately imposed in that case Therefore they continue in the mercy of the Lord ... ... xxxx sh

The jurors aforesaid doe present & say that all former pains laid & by lawes made in this Court & ratified & confirmed by any former verdict or verdicts being not repugnant to the knowne lawes of this land, shall remain continue and stand good.

III. - Five years later, the third Court Baron was held. Francis Bradshaw was still an infant. In the interval, his mother had taken to herself, as her second husband, John Bolle, of Thorpe Hall, co. Lincoln, and it will be observed that he is associated with his wife in holding the Court for his step-son.

Great Court Baron of Francis Bradshaw Armiger Infant - “per” John Bole & Elizabeth his wife his guardians - Lord of the Manner held there for the said Manner on the 20th day of October in the twenty first year of the reign of our Lord Charles the Second now King of England & in the year of our Lord 1669 in the presence of Henry Kniveton Gentleman Steward there

William Redfern Francis Eyre 
William Bradwell John Howe 
John Bagshaw Richard Morton 
Thomas BagshawJurorsRichard BockingJurors
Thomas Deykeyn William Furnes 
Thomas Hall Junr. Robert Redfarn 
Francis Marshall   

which said jurors for the Manor being sworn and charged on their oath say and present that Rowland Eyre arm: William Middleton Abraham Crosland John White Robert Barber and John Francis owe suits and service to this court and have not appeared to do the same but made default thereof. Every one of them is in the mercy of the Lord ... ijd

They present that John Bamforth encroached on the waste of the Manner ... ... ... vjd

They present that Edmund Ashmere did it by advice and is therefore in the mercy of the Lord ... ... ijd

They lay a pain that if Henry Furnes doe not make up his fence at Wall head sufficient and good before the twentieth day of March next and soe continue the same he shall forfeit for his neglect ... ... iijs

They lay a pain that if any person sleate[24] or chase sheep upon ye Commons of this Mannor with doggs or otherwise shall forfeite for every offence ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xijd

They lay a pain that if any of the inhabitants of Abney or Grange doe or shall digge or delve Turfe upon any white ground within the Mannor except for Clods[25] to cover their houses shall forfeit for every offence ... ... iij iiijd

IV. - Fifteen years elapsed before the next Great Court Baron of the manor of Abney was held. In the meantime, a change had taken place in the owners.

Francis Bradshaw never lived to hold a Court Baron in his own person as lord. He died, at the age of twenty-three, on 29th December, 1677, and was succeeded by his brother John, who was born 27th June, 1656, and who, April, 1683, held his first Court Baron. He died in his seventy-first year at Brampton, co. York, and was succeeded by his only surviving son, George Bradshawe - the last of the Bradshawes, of Bradshaw.

The following is the last evidence of a Court Baron being held at Abney:-

Great Court Baron of John Bradshawe armiger Lord of the Manor held there for that Manor 23rd April in the 35th year of Charles II. (1683)

In the presence of George Lee Gentleman Steward

Thomas Bocking Robert Howe 
William Lowe Clement Marshall 
Robert Barker Francis Barker 
John BomfordjurorsThomas Daykeynejurors
Robert Redfern Thomas Drable 
Peter Furness Robert Bamforth 
Arthur Worrell   

Which said jurors being sworn, say on their oath and present that Thomas Eyre Esqr., Richard Wheawood Robert Middleton. senr. John White Robert Marshall Thomas Morton Edmund Hall Thomas Eyre Thomas Hall senr. Richard Bocking Abraham Crossland Thomas Bamforth George Bomford William Bomford Thomas Worrall Eliseus Winterbotham Francis Townsend Peter ... Robert Bagshaw owe suits to this Court have not appeared but have made default thereof Each one therefore is in the mercy of the Lord ... ... ijd

Fines imposed

They present that Ellis Slater of Hardlemere pastured and fed his sheep on the Common pastures of this Manner against the Customs of the said Manner
      he is in the mercy of the Lord ... ... iijs iiijd

They present that Thomas Morten 'encroached on the Commons of this Manner
      he is in the mercy of the Lord ... ... iijs iiijd

John Bagshaw Richard Bocking, Thomas Daykeyn Francis Eyre and Richard Weywood are in the mercy of the Lord
      for the same offence each ... ... ... vjd

They lay a pain that if any person or persons within this Mannor doe or shall digge or delve up any Turfe beneath ye gate goeing Doopoe Brooke and Moerge Ditch except for Clods for repair of their houses and, fences shall forfeit to ye Lord of the Manor for every Cartfull they or any of them shall soe gett ... ... vjd
      and for every burthen ... ... vjd

They lay a pain that if any person or persons within this Manor doe delve or plough up any Clodes and burne them on ye Commons or wast ground of this Manner for Ashes for their ground shall forfeit for every offence ... ... iijs iiijd

They lay a pain that if any inhabitant or inhabitants within this Mannor doe refuse to come to mend ye highwayes haveing notice of the tyme appointed shall forfeit to ye Lord of this Manor for every default ... ... xijd

They lay a pain that If any person or persons within this Manor having right of Common doe neglect or refuse to come and helpe to stone ye sitches and ditches upon ye Common or Commons of this Mannor haveing notice thereof shall forfeit to ye Lord of this Manor ... ... xiid

They lay a pain that if any one doe breake and take away any other man's hedges shall forfeit for every burthen they shall ace take away iiijd

If any person or persons within this Mannor doth or doe throwe open any out gate shall forfeit for every offence ... ... xijd

They lay a pain that if any person or persons doe winter out any sheep and bring them to ye Commons of theis Mannor in Summer shall forfeit for every sheep soe wintered and brought upon ye Commons of this Manor except hoggs ... ... vjd

They lay a pain that if any person belongeing to ye Long field doe not make up his fence there att or before ye five and twentyeth day of March next and keepe ye same in good repair shall forfeit to ye Lord of theis Mannor for his defalt ... ... iiis iiijd

Item they lay a pain that If the inhabitants of Abney doe not before the tower and Twentyeth day of June next repair their Stockes they shall forfeit to ye Lord of theis Mannor for their neglect ... xs

They lay a pain that if any person or persons within this Mannor doe carry and take away the fearne mowed and raked together by any other without leave of the person or persons that soe mowed the same for every offence ... ... iijs iiijd

They present that John Bagshaw and Richard Bocking have lead and carryed away the fearne which Robert Bagshawe had mowed and raked together therefore they and each of them in the mercy of the Lord xijd

The jurors aforesaid doe find approve allow agree and present that all Antient Customs in theis Court and all former pains laid and by lawes made (not repugnant to ye known Lawes of theis Kingdom) heretofore used and had in this Court and ratifyed and confirmed by any other former verdict or verdicts shall remain continue and stand good.

Notes:
[1] Glover's Derbyshire, vol. ii., p. 3.
[2] Feudal History, cf. pp. 393 and 401, sec. viii.
[3] Wolley, ii., 80.
[4] There is no proof that the Abbot, or any subsequent owner of Grange - which comprises less than one-eighth of the whole estate - ever claimed half the waste.
[5] See p. 132.
[6] Sec. viii., p. 391.
[7] In the writer's possession.
[8] Or boundaries.
[9] Ford.
[10] Instead of “Slack”, etc., read “to the corner of ffox wall.”
[11] Insert here “from thence to Standing Stone”.
[12] Instead of “ye Brooke” read “Signeing Sich”.
[13] Bole.
[14] Instead read “Odderdale Head”.
[15] Insert here, “So following the wall to Rivenage and so to the top of Clusterberry Low”.
[16] Clusterberry is still the local name for the Cowberry (Vaccinium vitis Idoea), which grows abundantly on the Eyam Moors, but somewhat sparsely at Abney. It makes a very good preserve.
[17] Ostor.
[18] No evidences of any previous purchase of the manor are in the possession of the writer, which fact suggests that it was probably acquired by the Bagshawes through some marriage, possibly through that of Nicholas with the co-heir of Hall, of Great Hucklowe.
[19] Vol. xxv., pp. 35 to 37 of this Journal. [Ed: i.e. DAJ, vol. 29, 1907]
[20] Vol. xxv., p. 46, of this Journal. [Ed: i.e. DAJ, vol. 29, 1907]
[21] 2d. is placed over the name of each.
[22] This signifies, “away from” - all tenants were obliged to use the Lord's mill.
[23] Her husband's mother, Elizabeth Bradshawe, was still alive.
[24] To slate a beast is to hound a dog at him to bait him.
[25] To this day small fowl-houses are occasionally roofed with turfs at Abney.
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